Using Naturally Occurring Data in Qualitative Health Research

Using Naturally Occurring Data in Qualitative Health Research

A Practical Guide

Kiyimba, Nikki; Lester, Jessica Nina; O'Reilly, Michelle

Springer International Publishing AG

11/2018

348

Dura

Inglês

9783319948386

15 a 20 dias

Descrição não disponível.
PrefaceThe preface of the book will set the stage for the reader, while offering some context and direction for the book. It will discuss the general issues that are presented throughout the book, define key terms, and illustrate why and how the book is a useful resource for students, practitioners, and academic scholars who do or are interested in qualitative research. The preface will introduce the structure of the book and highlight key, pedagogical features utilised throughout. Chapter 1: Naturally occurring data in qualitative health research This chapter will open with a general introduction to qualitative health research and highlight some of the key debates about the value of qualitative work in the field of health. The main focus of this chapter will be to introduce the reader to key definitions around data sources/types and show what does and does not constitute naturally occurring data. Typically naturally occurring data is contrasted with researcher-generated data and the distinction will thus be clarified within this chapter, with multiple examples included throughout. Further, there are some key debates around data types in the research field, as well as some tensions, and thus these will be laid out in the chapter. Examples will be used throughout to help the reader in differentiating between the various types of data. Thus, the chapter will be structured broadly as follows: Introduction to qualitative health research Why health research needs process data What is naturally occurring data? What is researcher-generated data? Pedagogical features In addition to the general pedagogical features included in all of the chapters, such as the 'notable point' boxes and the recommended reading lists, this chapter will have a small number of features designed to consolidate and challenge the reader's learning. For example, an activity designed to challenge their understanding of what naturally occurring data is will be featured, with examples of research that are and are not naturally occurring. The reader will be required to thus differentiate and thereby apply their knowledge. Chapter 2: Evidence-based practice and practice based evidence The use of naturally occurring data for research purposes fits more broadly with the issues of the use of qualitative research as evidence for practice, which is a central tenet of health research of any kind. For context, this chapter will introduce the reader to some of the general debates about evidence, and illustrate how qualitative evidence is beneficial, as well as how it is generally defined. Further, the chapter will focus on illuminating how naturally occurring data constitutes a form of evidence for the field of health. Thus the chapter will be structured broadly as follows: What is evidence-based practice? What is practice-based evidence? What is the role of qualitative evidence and the evidence hierarchy? How can examining practice naturally generate usable evidence? Pedagogical features In addition to the general pedagogical features, such as the 'notable point' boxes and the recommended reading lists, this chapter will have a small number of features designed to consolidate and challenge the reader's learning. For example, this chapter will include an interview box' with a health researcher who uses naturally occurring data as qualitative evidence' and also has learned to navigate the challenges of positioning qualitative research as legitimate in relation to the evidence hierarchy. Chapter 3: Benefits and limitations of naturally occurring data in qualitative health researchThe focus for this chapter will be to illustrate the value and limitations of using naturally occurring data for health research. The main focus of the chapter will be on showing examples from the field to convey the advantages of using data that is naturally occurring to examine a range of health issues. This will be balanced with some critical discussion of the limitations of the approach. Thus the chapter will be structured broadly as follows: Benefits of using naturally occurring data in health research - Benefits in physical health research - Benefits in mental health research Limitations of using naturally occurring data in health research - Limitations in physical health research - Limitations in mental health research Responding to the limitations Pedagogical featuresIn addition to the general pedagogical features, such as the 'notable point' boxes and the recommended reading lists, this chapter will have a small number of features designed to consolidate and challenge the reader's learning. We will encourage the reader to be reflective in this chapter and relate their own research projects or proposals to some of the advice given in the chapter. We will do this with a series of reflective questions. Chapter 4: Qualitative approaches and their use of naturally occurring dataIt is recognised in the literature that some qualitative approaches favour naturally occurring data over researcher-generated and this has led to some healthy debates within the qualitative community. While we outline the approaches that favour this type of data, we also illustrate how it can be beneficial for a range of different qualitative perspectives. The chapter will contain practical advice, as well as a general overview of the common qualitative perspectives in relation to the use of naturally occurring data. Thus the chapter will be structured broadly and include a discussion of the following methodologies: Conversation analysis Discourse analysis Thematic analysis Grounded theory IPA Ethnography Pedagogical features In addition to the general pedagogical features, such as the 'notable point' boxes and the recommended reading lists, this chapter will have a small number of features designed to consolidate and challenge the reader's learning. For instance, this chapter will include illustrates examples from each of the methodologies discussed, highlighted how they may (or may not) incorporate naturally occurring data and the benefit of doing so. Chapter 5: Ethical principles in data collection Ethics are a crucial aspect of any research project and qualitative research invokes some ethical considerations in different ways to quantitative research projects. Also, health research by its nature can be more ethically challenging. The chapter will open with a discussion of some of the general ethical tensions that exist in qualitative health research, and will then move to the more specific ethical arguments related to using naturally occurring data, its collection, analysis and dissemination. Thus the chapter will be structured broadly and include the following: Qualitative research: An introduction to ethics (consent, confidentiality, and so on) Qualitative health research: Ethical issues pertinent to health fields (e.g., vulnerability, dual roles, power and coercion) The specific characteristics of qualitative research ethics (e.g. depth, iterative process, visibility, deductive disclosure) Ethics of naturally occurring data (e.g., gatekeepers, trust, researcher involvement, potential imposition or distortion of clinical practice, dissemination issues) The role of the ethics committee and the process of convincing external health audiences of the value of naturally occurring data Pedagogical features In addition to the general pedagogical features, such as the 'notable point' boxes and the recommended reading lists, this chapter will have a small number of features designed to consolidate and challenge the reader's learning. In this chapter, we will include a vignette of a particularly poorly planned piece of research in terms of ethics and ask the reader to highlight the ethical problems with it. Chapter 6: Media and text-based sources An often underestimated valuable source of naturally occurring data is that of media sources, such as television programmes, documentaries, newspapers and magazines. The ways in which health issues are presented through the press can be of interest to analysts. This chapter will focus on the use of natural diaries, policy documents, medical notes, health guidelines, and Hansard documents, as well as other areas such as police transcripts, court transcripts and social care reports whereby health is invoked, to illustrate the value of analysing texts that occur naturally in the field of health. The focus of this chapter will be on the use of this kind of data. Thus the chapter will be structured broadly and include the following: The use of the media in qualitative health research Television Documentaries News interviews Newspapers and magazines Natural diaries Policy documents Medical notes Pedagogical features In addition to the general pedagogical features such as the 'notable point' boxes and the recommended reading lists, this chapter will have a small number of features designed to consolidate and challenge the reader's learning. In this chapter, we will use real media examples to illustrate our points and provide a vignette to challenge the reader to think about the value and limitations of this type of data. Chapter 7: Computer mediated communication and social media In a modern world, there is a growing reliance of computer mediated communication and social media sources. The focus of this chapter will be those particular naturally occurring communications and will seek to illustrate the value of Internet sources, such as discussion forums, and social media, such as Facebook, for the study of health related issues. Additionally, some email conversations, text message, and instant message conversations can be classed as naturally occurring and be a useful source of data. As such, these types of data will also be considered. Thus the chapter will be structured broadly and include the following: Social media and computer-mediated communication as data Synchronous and asynchronous communication forms (to be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 8) Video data (e.g., YouTube) Social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) Email, instant messenger, and text message Pedagogical features In addition to the general pedagogical features, such as the 'notable point' boxes and the recommended reading lists, this chapter will have a small number of features designed to consolidate and challenge the reader's learning. Computer mediated communication data presents the researcher with a unique set of ethical considerations, particularly as much of this data is often consider public'. As such, in this chapter we will present the reader with a series of ethical dilemmas related to the collection of this type of data and encourage them to 1) reflect and 2) solve' the dilemma. Chapter 8: Computer-mediated health services and online forums In the modern health environment, there are now a range of health services delivered online such as e-counselling or online therapy. Additionally, there is a range of physical health advice, as well as health forums and discussion boards. While much of this counts as health services, or psycho-education in health, there are a range of different online forums and discussion boards which are more problematic, for example the pro-ana sites. These are all potentially useful sources of naturally occurring data. Thus the chapter will be structured broadly and include the following: Ethical concerns specific to computer mediated health services The uses of E-counselling and online therapy for health research The uses of online doctors and health advice for health research Considering when online health is problematic - e.g. pro ana sites - self-harm sites Pedagogical features In addition to the general pedagogical features, such as the 'notable point' boxes and the recommended reading lists, this chapter will have a small number of features designed to consolidate and challenge the reader's learning. Specifically, in this chapter, a real life example from child mental health in the UK will illuminate some of the issues inherent to collecting naturally occurring data. A box of research tips will also be included here as well. Chapter 9: Using naturally occurring data to research vulnerable groups A particular concern for health research is those groups of individuals typically considered vulnerable, such as children, individuals who identify as disabled, individuals who are mentally ill, individuals who are incarcerated, and the elderly. In this chapter, we consider each of these groups in terms of the challenges and benefits of using naturally occurring data to help make recommendations for practice. Thus the chapter will be structured broadly and include a focus on the following: The value and challenges of using naturally occurring data to research vulnerable populations - Defining 'vulnerable populations' in health research Using naturally occurring data to engage in research with children Using naturally occurring data to engage in research with prisoners Using naturally occurring data to engage in research with individuals with physical disabilities Using naturally occurring data to engage in research with individuals with mental health difficulties Using naturally occurring data to engage in research with the elderly Pedagogical features In addition to the general pedagogical features included throughout the book, such as the 'notable point' boxes and the recommended reading lists, this chapter will have a small number of features designed to consolidate and challenge the reader's learning. In this chapter, we will challenge the reader with a series of vignette scenarios that consider practical and ethical dilemmas inherent to collecting naturally occurring data from vulnerable groups. Chapter 10: Applications and conclusions Making recommendations to practitioners to help improve policy or practice, quality issues and dissemination are all central to the value of naturally occurring data and its application in practice. Thus, this chapter will discuss the ways in which naturally occurring data can be used in applied research to inform everyday practice and policymaking. Specifically, we will discuss how naturally occurring data can be positioned as a valuable data source to add to the good quality of evidence in practice-based settings. In this chapter, we synthesize some of the key debates from the book and give advice on how to disseminate research that uses naturally occurring data. We conclude the chapter by discussing key principles for collecting naturally occurring data and engaging in research that uses it as a central for of evidence. Thus the chapter will be structured broadly and include the following: The uses of naturally occurring data to inform everyday practice The uses of naturally occurring data to inform policy and policymaking Naturally occurring data as legitimate evidence' for applied research Synthesis of key ideas from the text Key considerations for engaging in research using naturally occurring data Pedagogical features In addition to the general pedagogical features, such as the 'notable point' boxes and the recommended reading lists, this chapter will have a small number of features designed to consolidate and challenge the reader's learning. Specifically, in this chapter we will include three vignettes that highlight the practical uses of naturally occurring data for 1) improving practice, 2) developing policy, and 3) making sense of the effects of policy implementation. The book will be completed with a glossary of all the key terms utilised for quick reference and a list of all referenced sources employed in the writing.
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